As a part of its ongoing mission to provide local governments with critical and time-sensitive information to assist their communities, including all-hazards response plans, SGR is closely following the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak that originated in the City of Wuhan, China in December 2019.
The pathogen responsible for this outbreak is a new (novel) coronavirus that is genetically similar to the viruses that caused the SARS outbreak in 2002/2003 in China and the MERS outbreak in the Middle East in 2014.
SGR is providing up-to-date information and resources on our website about the Coronavirus. Many of our larger local government partners likely already have this data and tracking in place through their public health offices, and they should be the first point of contact. For our smaller local government partners without the resources to provide this information, SGR is serving as an information broker to fill the need for our partners to provide this information to their communities.
SGR will be assisting its local government partners in emergency preparedness by:
- Providing COVID-19 situation reports and links to relevant information on its website.
- Offering, when completed, a revised version of SGR’s “2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Planning Manual-with COOP (Continuity of Operations Plan) Component.” The new pandemic planning manual will have revised COOP components that will address emerging and novel pathogens (inclusive of COVID-19) which are capable of causing a pandemic.
- On December 31, 2019, the Chinese government announced an outbreak of a pneumonia of unknown cause affecting several patients in Wuhan;
- On January 3, 2020, Chinese officials reported 44 cases of this pneumonia illness;
- By January 11, 2020, this infectious disease had spread to dozens of more people – Chinese officials informed the World Health Organization (WHO) that the common source may be a seafood market in Wuhan and that a new coronavirus had been identified in several of these patients; Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause disease in several species of animals and are one of several virus types which cause the common cold in people.
- By January 20, 2020, this outbreak had spread to Thailand, Japan, and South Korea;
- On January 30, 2020, WHO officially declared the COVID-19 outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
- On January 31, 2010 the WHO and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report just under 10,000 confirmed cases in 26 countries, with 213 deaths. There have been six cases confirmed in the United States: two in Illinois, two in California, and one each in Arizona and Washington State. The first human-to-human transmission in the US involves the Chicago, IL cases. One woman who returned from a trip to Wuhan developed the illness and has now infected her husband.
News, Updates & Resources
In response to this ongoing public health emergency, Johns Hopkins University has developed an online dashboard (static snapshot shown below) to visualize and track the reported cases on a daily timescale.
February 19, 2020 @ 4 pm CST
From February 15, 2020 to February 19, 2020, the COVID-19 epidemic situational update includes:
- Globally, there have been 75,280 confirmed COVID-19 cases, with 2,014 deaths.
- The Diamond Princess cruise ship quarantined in Yokohama, Japan is in the process of releasing hundreds of passengers, who have completed their 14-day quarantine period.The US has transferred most of its citizens off this ship, back to military bases in the US.As many as 14 of the nearly 400 Americans returned from the Diamond Princess may be infected with COVID-19, and are being treated at US locations. A total of 624 passengers and crew on this ship has been infected with coronavirus.
- The MS Westerdam cruise ship, docked in Sihanoukville, Cambodia has now allowed its passengers to disembark. Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom have sent charter flights to retrieve their citizens who had been on the Westerdam. One US citizen on this ship was allowed to leave, and later developed coronavirus infection. Cambodian and US officials are performing contact tracing on persons she may have exposed.
- The US State Department has now issued a second travel advisory for a country based on the presence of coronavirus. The first country the State Department advised against travel was mainland China, the second is Hong Kong.
- Twenty-seven infectious disease scientists from around the world have signed a joint-letter which debunks the several conspiracy theories which allege that COVID-19 coronavirus did not actually originate in a wildlife species in China, but was accidentally released from a virus research laboratory in Wuhan, China.These experts state emphatically that this new coronavirus has a mammalian origin, and like previous coronavirus outbreaks, may have originated in bats from Hubei Province.
- The country of Singapore now reports 84 cases, with confirmed person-to-person transmission.
- On February 18, China expelled three reporters from the Wall Street Journal for publishing articles that are critical of China’s response to COVID-19.
- Iran has reported its first two cases of COVID-19, in two elderly Iranian citizens.
- Adidas reports an 85% drop in shoe sales within China.
- The WHO has now shipped COVID-19 test kits to 56 countries.
- The United Arab Emirates now reports 9 cases of COVID-19.
February 13, 2020 @ 10 am CST
From February 11, 2020 to February 13, 2020, the COVID-19 epidemic situational update includes:
- On February 12, 2020 China added a second method for diagnosing (and therefore counting) new cases of coronavirus disease (referred to as a “clinical diagnosis”). They added a positive lung X-ray indicative of pneumonia plus a physician’s opinion, even in the absence of an RT-PCR confirmatory test, as a case.
- The change in the method of declaring a person to be a COVID-19 case added a “sudden surge” of 15,000 additional cases in Hubei Province, bringing the global case count to 59,823. The global death count as of 02/13 is 1,370.
- After being turned away from multiple countries for a place to dock, the MS Westerdam cruise ship was allowed to dock in Cambodia on February 12. No cases of COVID-19 have been reported among passengers or crew.
- Beijing has reported their COVID-19 case count as 342.
- US Federal Reserve Board Chairman Jerome Powell said on February 11 that this epidemic could hurt the global economy.
- Hong Kong health officials report the possibility of transmission of this coronavirus in a high-rise apartment building through improper plumbing fixtures.
- Shanghai on February 12 officially postponed its Formula One Chinese Grand Prix scheduled for April 19 due to fears of coronavirus spread. World Rugby moved its April competitions scheduled for Hong Kong and Singapore to October dates. The International Olympic Committee stated its Tokyo Games will still take place in July and August.
- The cruise ship Diamond Princess that is quarantined at a port in Yokohama, Japan now has 218 confirmed cases.
- Reuters reports a 14th confirmed case in the US. The patient is an evacuee from Wuhan who has been quarantined at the Miramar Air Station in San Diego, and is believed to have been infected in Wuhan. CDC indicates that there has been no known transmission of coronavirus among evacuees who are quarantined at US military installations.
- NBC News and CDC reported on February 13 that Texas has its first case of COVID-19. The case is one of the 91 evacuees from China being quarantined at Lackland AFB in San Antonio and is in isolation at a San Antonio hospital. CDC officials indicate that the public should be aware that before the February 20 “end of quarantine” for these 91 people, more could develop COVID-19 disease. Texas is now the 7th US state with one or more COVID-19 cases.
- Japan reported its first death from COVID-19 on February 12. Patient was an 80-year old female.
February 11, 2020 @ 11 am CST
From February 7, 2020 to February 11, 2020 at 11 am CST, the 2019-nCoV epidemic situational update includes:
- The case count is 43,143 with coronavirus deaths reported as 1,018.
- On 2/7 – Royal Caribbean cruise lines has banned from boarding any of its ships any person who has a passport from China, Hong Kong, or Macau.
- Reuters reports that the first US citizen has died of 2019-nCoV, in a hospital in Wuhan on February 8. The person was 60 years of age.
- The US has reported its 13th case. An evacuee from China, in quarantine at a military base in San Diego has tested positive and is being treated. Another seven evacuees at this location are hospitalized with respiratory disease symptoms and are being evaluated.
- The single day death toll in China set a record on Monday, February 10, with 100 deaths reported.
- The first group of evacuees from China that was quarantined at a military base in California has now been cleared to go home.
- Chinese researchers have announced they have found the species of mammal they believe is the intermediate host for this specific coronavirus. The researchers have tested animals called pangolins (scaly anteaters) that are often sold in food markets, and found a novel coronavirus with a 99% genomic match to the coronavirus isolated from Chinese patients.
- On February 11, a World Health Organization (WHO) team arrived in Wuhan to assist the Chinese with efforts to mitigate this outbreak.
- CNN reports that the cruise ship Diamond Princess remains quarantined in Yokohama, Japan. It has over 3,000 passengers and crew, including 428 Americans. Confirmed coronavirus cases have now reached 135, including 24 Americans.
- On February 10, the WHO proposed a new name for 2019-nCoV. WHO recommends using the name “COVID-19”, for coronavirus in 2019. WHO indicates that this name does not have negative connotations for any animals, or any geographic regions of the world.
Sources: WHO; CDC; CNN; New York Times; Johns Hopkins Health, Washington Post
February 6, 2020 @ 7:30 PM CST
From February 5, 2020 to the evening of February 6, 2020, the 2019-nCoV epidemic situational update includes:
- There are 31,317 confirmed cases worldwide, with 637 reported deaths.
- The nation outside of China with the most cases is Japan, with 45 cases.
- There remain 12 cases in the United States, involving six states.
- On February 5, 2020, the CDC shipped coronavirus test kits to 115 public health laboratories in the US. Each test kit is capable of testing 700 to 800 patient specimens, in about 4 hours per test.
- Belgium reported its first confirmed case of 2019-nCoV.
- The WHO just completed its “Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan and Resource Requirements.” This document is available on the WHO website.
- The WHO is sponsoring a global forum in Geneva on February 11 and 12. The purpose of the forum is to speed efforts to develop effective treatments and to develop a vaccine.
- Wuhan City just completed its second new hospital to treat residents for coronavirus. The hospital has 1,600 beds and 2,000 healthcare employees.
- Two US citizens on the cruise ship quarantined in Japan have tested positive for coronavirus. A total of 61 passengers and crew have now tested positive aboard this quarantined vessel.
- The Chinese physician who is credited with first informing the public of the presence of this coronavirus outbreak (Li Wenliang, age 33) is reported by the Wall Street Journal to have become infected with 2019-nCoV, and died on or about February 6.
February 5, 2020 @ 6:00 PM CST
From February 3, 2020, to February 5, 2020, the 2019-nCoV epidemic situational update includes:
- One newborn in Wuhan City, 30 hours after birth, tested positive for coronavirus.
- China’s Health Commission reports that 80% of deaths related to this virus are in patients 60 years of age or older.
- Two planes from Hubei Province in China have evacuated approximately 350 Americans. The planes landed in California, with half of the citizens quarantined at Travis Air Force Base, and the other half quarantined at Marine Corps Air Station in San Diego. These citizens have now begun their 14-day observation period.
- Two cruise ships are now in quarantine. One vessel is anchored off the coast of Japan with over 3600 people, and 10 of its passengers have been confirmed with 2019-nCoV. The other ship is docked in Hong Kong, with 1800 passengers and crew. Three of those persons are being tested for coronavirus.
- Globally, the case count has reached 20,630, with just under 500 reported deaths.
- The 12th case of this disease has been reported in the US, involving an adult who had known contact with cases in China. The individual became ill after returning home to Wisconsin and is under isolation at home.
- US states with one or more cases of 2019-nCoV include: Arizona, California, Illinois, Massachusetts, Washington, and Wisconsin.
As of February 2, 2020
- There are 11 cases in the United States, involving 5 states - Arizona, California, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Washington.
- There have been approximately 17,400 cases globally, with the majority in mainland China; however, 24 other countries have reported at least one case.
- There have been 361 deaths reported in China.
- The first death from novel coronavirus has been reported outside of China. A 44-year old man died in the Philippines after returning from a trip to Wuhan, China. His companion has been infected and is being monitored.
- The case fatality rate (i.e. the percentage of confirmed cases resulting in death) is estimated to be between 2 and 3 percent (compared to approximately 10 percent reported during the SARS epidemic in China in 2002-2003).
- On January 31, 2020 President Trump signed a proclamation regarding travel restrictions as follows:
- All foreign nationals who have visited China in the previous 14 days are prohibited from entering the US.
- US citizens returning from China must return through one of 11 designated US airports, and receive comprehensive medical screening. If symptomatic, these US citizens will be placed in isolation.
- 2019-nCoV Overview for EMS Agencies (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)
- 2019-nCoV Situation Overview (CDC)
- Interim Guidance for Healthcare Providers (CDC)
- Preparedness Checklist for 2019-nCoV (CDC)
- Infection Control for Suspected 2019-nCoV Patients (WHO)
- Frequently Asked Questions: 2019 Novel Coronavirus (CDC)
- Live Map of 2019-nCoV Cases (CDC and Johns Hopkins University)
Novel Coronavirus: Symptoms & Transmission
Information from CDC
2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China. Early on, many of the patients in the outbreak in Wuhan, China reportedly had some link to a large seafood and animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. However, a growing number of patients reportedly have not had exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread is occurring. At this time, it’s unclear how easily or sustainably this virus is spreading between people.
Latest Situation Summary Updates from CDC
The latest situation summary updates are available on CDC’s web site.
Information from CDC
Common human coronaviruses, including types 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1, usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold. Most people get infected with these viruses at some point in their lives. These illnesses usually only last for a short amount of time. Symptoms may include:
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
- A general feeling of being unwell
Human coronaviruses can sometimes cause lower-respiratory tract illnesses, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. This is more common in people with cardiopulmonary disease, people with weakened immune systems, infants, and older adults.
Other Human Coronaviruses
Two other human coronaviruses, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, have been known to frequently cause severe symptoms. MERS symptoms usually include fever, cough, and shortness of breath which often progress to pneumonia. About 3 or 4 out of every 10 patients reported with MERS have died. MERS cases continue to occur, primarily in the Arabian Peninsula. SARS symptoms often included fever, chills, and body aches which usually progressed to pneumonia. No human cases of SARS have been reported anywhere in the world since 2004.
Your healthcare provider may order laboratory tests on respiratory specimens and serum (part of your blood) to detect human coronaviruses. Laboratory testing is more likely to be used if you have severe disease or are suspected of having MERS. If you are experiencing symptoms, you should tell your healthcare provider about any recent travel or contact with animals. Most MERS-CoV infections have been reported from countries in the Arabian Peninsula. Therefore, reporting a travel history or contact with camels or camel products is very important when trying to diagnose MERS.
Additional CDC Resources
Information from CDC
Human coronaviruses most commonly spread from an infected person to others through
- The air by coughing and sneezing
- Close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands
- Touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands
- Rarely, fecal contamination
In the United States, people usually get infected with common human coronaviruses in the fall and winter. However, you can get infected at any time of the year. Most people will get infected with one or more of the common human coronaviruses in their lifetime. Young children are most likely to get infected. However, people can have multiple infections in their lifetime.
Additional CDC Resources
SGR is pleased to have Bill Peterson, Former Regional DHS / FEMA Director, and John Teel, Former Local Health Department Director, reviewing and answering submitted questions* focused on Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) concepts and potentially disruptive forces to provision of city/county services should novel coronavirus have a high incidence in US cities and communities.
Questions and answers will not be answered individually, but will be posted on SGR's Coronavirus FAQ page.
*Patient healthcare advice will not be provided. Please contact your physician or local health authority for patient healthcare and medical advice.